Birmingham: Essential Points

The average family size in Birmingham, AL is 3.12 family members members, with 44.9% owning their very own residences. The mean home appraisal is $94786. For people paying rent, they pay an average of $837 monthly. 41% of homes have dual incomes, and the average household income of $37375. Average income is $22646. 25.9% of town residents live at or below the poverty line, and 18.1% are handicapped. 7.3% of inhabitants are former members of this US military.

Birmingham, Alabama-Acoma Pueblo

Lets visit Northwest New Mexico's Chaco Culture National Monument from Birmingham, AL. Based from the use of similar buildings by current Puebloan peoples, these rooms had been areas that are probably common for rites and gatherings, with a fireplace in the middle and room access supplied by a ladder extending through a smoke hole in the ceiling. Large kivas, or "great kivas," were able to accommodate hundreds of people and stood alone when not integrated into a housing that is large, frequently constituting a center location for surrounding villages made of (relatively) little buildings. To sustain large buildings that are multi-story held rooms with floor spaces and ceiling heights far greater than those of pre-existing houses, Chacoans erected gigantic walls employing a "core-and-veneer" method variant. An core that is inner of sandstone with mud mortar created the core to which slimmer facing stones were joined to produce a veneer. These walls were approximately one meter thick at the base, tapering as they ascended to conserve weight--an indication that builders planned the upper stories during the original building in other instances. While these mosaic-style veneers remain evident today, adding to these structures' remarkable beauty, Chacoans plastered plaster to many interior and exterior walls after construction was total to preserve the mud mortar from water harm. Starting with Chetro Ketl's building, Chaco Canyon, projects for this magnitude needed a huge number of three vital materials: sandstone, water, and lumber. Employing stone tools, Chacoans mined then molded and faced sandstone from canyon walls, choosing hard and dark-colored tabular stone at the most effective of cliffs during initial building, going as styles altered during later construction to softer and bigger tan-colored stone lower down cliffs. Liquid, essential to build mud mortar and plaster combined with sand, silt and clay, was marginal and accessible only during short and summer that is typically heavy.   Rainwater was caught in wells and dammed areas formed in the arroyo (intermittently running stream) that cut the canyon, Chaco Wash, and in ponds to which runoff was diverted by a system of ditches, as well as natural sandstone reservoirs. Timber sources, which had been needed to build roofs and upper story levels, were formerly abundant in the canyon but vanished about the time of the Chacoan fluorescence owing to drought or deforestation. As a consequence, Chacoans went 80 kilometers on foot to coniferous woods to the south and west, cutting down trees, peeling them, and drying them for an extended length of time to minimize body weight, before returning and carrying them right back to the canyon. This was no easy undertaking, given that each tree would have taken a team of workers several days to transport, and that more than 200,000 trees were utilized in the building and renovation of the canyon's approximately dozen major great house and great kiva sites over three centuries. Chaco Canyon's Designed Landscape. Despite the fact that Chaco Canyon had a density of construction never seen previously in the region, the canyon was just a tiny part of a huge linked territory that created Chacoan civilisation. Outside the canyon, there were more than 200 settlements with large homes and kivas that is magnificent in the same distinctive brick style and design as those found inside the canyon, but on a lesser scale. Although the majority of these sites were found in the San Juan Basin, a stretch was covered by them of the Colorado Plateau higher than England. Chacoans built an extensive system of roadways to connect these settlements to the canyon and to the other person by digging and leveling the ground that is underlying, in some instances, adding clay or masonry curbs for support. These roads often began at large buildings inside the canyon and beyond, and then radiate outward in amazingly parts that are straight.   Chacoans built ramps or stairs into the walls of cliffs to preserve the straightness of the roadways, even if the terrains that are steep in the American Southwest, such as mesas, buttes, and other mountainous landforms, crossed their path. Given the difficulty involved in such an approach and the fact that many roads were not obvious to their destinations, some roads were much wider than needed for foot transit (9 meters wide) it seems likely that these roads played a symbolic or function that is spiritual leading pilgrims to other occasions or rites. Certain great houses had been put within a line of sight from each other and nearby shrines. This allowed for faster communication and the ability to signal places that are distant sunlight expression or fire. Fajada Butte occupies a dominant position in Chaco Canyon. Aligning roads and structures with the cardinal directions as well as the positions of sun and moon during critical seasons like solstices and equinoxes and lunar standsstills has been a common practice in Chacoan culture. This added structure to the environment. For example, the wall that is front of Bonito's great house is oriented north-south and east-west, while the actual location of Chetro Ketl is west. Casa Rinconada is a grand kiva of 19 meters in diameter, located within the canyon. It has two T-shaped internal doors that are organized on a line that is north-south two external doors that face east. The rising sun can pass through these doors only when the canyon is available for restoration.