The Essential Details: Whittier, California

The Fascinating Tale Of Chaco National Monument (New Mexico, USA)

Lets visit Chaco Canyon in Northwest New Mexico from Whittier, CA. Based from the use of similar buildings by current Puebloan peoples, these rooms had been areas that are probably common for rites and gatherings, with a fireplace in the middle and room access supplied by a ladder extending through a smoke hole in the ceiling. Large kivas, or "great kivas," were able to accommodate hundreds of people and stood alone when not integrated into a housing that is large, frequently constituting a center location for surrounding villages made of (relatively) little buildings. To sustain large buildings that are multi-story held rooms with floor spaces and ceiling heights far greater than those of pre-existing houses, Chacoans erected gigantic walls employing a "core-and-veneer" method variant. An core that is inner of sandstone with mud mortar created the core to which slimmer facing stones were joined to produce a veneer. These walls were approximately one meter thick at the base, tapering as they ascended to conserve weight--an indication that builders planned the upper stories during the original building in other instances. While these mosaic-style veneers remain evident today, adding to these structures' remarkable beauty, Chacoans plastered plaster to many interior and exterior walls after construction was total to preserve the mud mortar from water harm. Starting with Chetro Ketl's building, Chaco Canyon, projects for this magnitude needed a huge number of three vital materials: sandstone, water, and lumber. Employing stone tools, Chacoans mined then molded and faced sandstone from canyon walls, choosing hard and dark-colored tabular stone at the most effective of cliffs during initial building, going as styles altered during later construction to softer and bigger tan-colored stone lower down cliffs. Liquid, essential to build mud mortar and plaster combined with sand, silt and clay, was marginal and accessible only during short and summer that is typically heavy.   Rainwater was caught in wells and dammed areas formed in the arroyo (an intermittently running creek) that shaped the canyon, Chaco Wash, as well as ponds to which runoff was diverted by a system of ditches. Timber sources, which were necessary for the building of roofs and story that is upper, were formerly abundant in the canyon but vanished around the time of the Chacoan fluorescence owing to drought or deforestation. As a consequence, Chacoans went 80 kilometers on foot to coniferous woods towards the south and west, cutting down trees, peeling them, and drying them for an extended period of time to minimize weight before returning and lugging them back to the canyon. This was no easy undertaking, provided that hauling each tree would have taken a multi-day travel by a team of people, and that more than 200,000 trees were utilized throughout the three centuries of building and renovation of the canyon's roughly dozen major great house and great kiva sites. Chaco Canyon's Pre-Planned Landscape While Chaco Canyon had a high density of construction on a scale never seen previously in your community, it had been just a component that is tiny the heart of a wide linked area that created the Chacoan civilisation. Outside the canyon, there were more than 200 settlements with large mansions and kivas that is great used the same characteristic stone style and design as those discovered inside the canyon, but on a lesser scale. Although these sites were most rich in the San Juan Basin, they covered an area of the Colorado Plateau greater than England. Chacoans built an extensive system of roadways to connect these settlements to the canyon and to one another by digging and leveling the underlying ground and, in some instances, adding clay or masonry curbs for help. These roads usually began at huge buildings inside and beyond the canyon, extending outward in wonderfully straight parts.   The presence of cocoa shows a migration of ideas as well as product products from Mesoamerica to Chaco. Cacao ended up being venerated by the Maya civilisation, who tried it to prepare frothed drinks that were consumed during elite rites by flowing back and forth between jars. Cacao residue was discovered on potsherds in the canyon, most likely from tall cylindrical jars found nearby that are similar in form to those used in Maya rites. In addition to cacao, several of these opulent trade products were presumably used for ceremonial purposes. These were mostly discovered in large numbers in storerooms and burial chambers in great homes, together with artifacts with ceremonial overtones, such as carved wooden staffs and flutes, and animal effigies. One chamber in Pueblo Bonito alone had around 50,000 pieces of turquoise, 4,000 items of jet (a dark-colored rock that is sedimentary, and 14 macaw bones. Tree ring evidence suggests that great house building halted about the c year. The year 1130 CE marks the beginning of a drought that is 50-year the San Juan Basin. A prolonged drought would have stretched resources and accelerated the civilization's downfall, as well as migration from the canyon and numerous outlying sites, which ceased by the middle of the 13th century CE with life at Chaco already precarious during years of normal rainfall. The burning of huge kivas plus the closing of big house doors imply a probable spiritual acceptance of this change in conditions, a scenario made more feasible by the central role migration plays in Puebloan peoples' origin legends.  

Whittier, CA is located in Los Angeles county, and has a populace of 85098, and is part of the greater Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA metro region. The median age is 37, with 12.1% for the residents under 10 many years of age, 13.4% are between 10-nineteen years old, 15.4% of inhabitants in their 20’s, 13.5% in their 30's, 12.8% in their 40’s, 13.4% in their 50’s, 10.1% in their 60’s, 5.5% in their 70’s, and 3.9% age 80 or older. 49.1% of residents are men, 50.9% female. 45% of citizens are recorded as married married, with 10.8% divorced and 38.5% never wedded. The percent of men or women identified as widowed is 5.7%.

The average family unit size in Whittier, CA is 3.65 residential members, with 57.5% owning their own houses. The mean home valuation is $569740. For those paying rent, they spend an average of $1354 monthly. 56.5% of families have dual incomes, and the average household income of $77270. Median individual income is $35078. 9.9% of citizens survive at or beneath the poverty line, and 9.5% are considered disabled. 4.2% of inhabitants are veterans regarding the armed forces.